is a very small , cheap cnc controller. is a stabile, error free , low f-error, high uptime ( >2 weeks as of 14 sep 2018) is a pretty slow maxVelocity of 225mm/min. (This effort is a trial, and speed hopefully comes later )
The result will have:
Raspbian Debian Jessie OS you can use debian repositories RT-Preempt kernel it's deterministic, you get responses on time LinuxcCNC? you get a world of control system and a community of users and most importantly, developers hal_gpio module to control hardware using RaspberryPi gpio lines you get lots of i/o, individually programmable direction, with very low cost interfacing
The hardware used:
Raspberry PI 3B with official power supply SD card ( 10x rated ) Host computer capable of 'ssh -x' into the RPi3B ( I run 'headless') Ethernet cable connection to working LAN router. external 5V power Supply for I/O 3.3V to 5V bidirectional i/o modules
for initial bootups only: HDMI monitor and cable usb keyboard and mouse ( I used logitech wireless dongle in single usb port )
My own system added these components:
Gecko G540 4 axis stepper driver Sable 2015 minI mill Palm router for spindle SSR for Spindle power
It's cheap ( in context of cnc controls ) It's realtime It's extensible It's tiny , like a wallet or cell phone or pack of cigarretes ( pick your analogy )
It has a low step rate, My particular system has a teeny stepsize of 0.00075mm due to several contstarints. The PI, as configured here, has a maximum 10000 _changes_ per second One _change _ is used to turn a 'step command on, and another _change_ to turn it off since a step needs one on and one off, I got a step rate of 5000 steps per second
5000 stepspersecond * 0.00075mmPerStep? = 3.75mm per second 3.75 * 60seconds = 225mm/minute SLOW! but this effort is a practice run before trying speedups ( dbl step and PICnc )
one more bad thing: I run headless, and if the 'main' computer turns off, I dont know how to reconnect to the still running RPi (happened twice in 3 weeks, the Pi kept running though! (big cap?) )
All software compilation done on the Pi
This is a long boring recipe,
with LOTS of time to get distracted and you may go watching videos or surfing the net
beware , and pay attention.
one missed step will yield a wasted day!
I used a Raspbian Debian Jessie Full Desktop image, This avoids building Xwindows et al. some web rumors say stretch has mem leaks.
I did not try stretch or 'pure' debian for arm. This is a "maze of twisty little passages" I do not know all the routes to success. I offer you this one route :-)
create a directory for this project. cd into it
Issue this command on the HOST system ( you dont have a useable RPI yet )
check the downloaded file
compare the result with the sum given on the same web page where you got the .zip it _has_ to match, else repeat until success
decompress the file
7z e 2017-07-05-raspbian-jessie.zip
you want to see """ Everything is Ok
Size: 4661483821 Compressed: 1656816607 """
now copy the extracted .img file to an sd card
the _exact_ command I use is _NOT_ the command you need to use.
you need to know how to use dd or you can wipe your main harddrive.
my command was
dd if=2017-07-05-raspbian-jessie.img of=/dev/sdc bs=1M
This command takes a _long_ time and has _NO_ visual feedback It wil be nerve racking for the newbies, it will be coffee time for the wizards.
Unplug everything connected to the Pi. Plug in the usb keyboard and mouse. Plug in both HDMI cable ends. Plug in ETH cable to local Lan.
boot it and log in on the PI using the connected keyboard (usb) mouse (usb) and monitor (hdmi) it takes almost a full minute ( seems very long )
I do the initial bootup right on the Pi, I think it is simpler. I use a program found on the PI called 'raspi-config'.
You will be automatically logged in as user 'pi' so, just FYI
you will be able to use sudo if neccesary your password ( unneeded ) is 'raspberry'
open a terminal by clicking on the icon run raspi-config
This program will let you configure your pi. I make some changes and expect them for the rest of this recipe.
your country and personal preferences apply
Using raspi-config, I change these informations user password
use whatever you like, but remember it, you wont get back in without it the username will remain 'pi'
boot options | desktop/clI | text console require login
this removes the guI , I wont be using it later
boot options | splash screen | NO
else messy screen from graphic getting text written over it
localisation | locale | remove mark on en_GB add en_US UTF-8 UTF-8
I chose en_US.UTF-8, you choose whatever is apropo
localisation | time zone | asia bangkok
I doubt this is your choice
localisation | keyboard layout | generic 105key intl
YESAdvanced options | Expand filesystem
YES you get a message "Root partition has been resized, will be enlarged on next reboot'<FINISH> you get another message "reboot now?" <yes>
The system will reboot, The screen will be all text The change for 'no splash' seems to fail for me, so I just repeat that step and it works
''' login: pi Password: whatyousaid pi@raspberrypi: $ '''
OK, that was just a test boot, now get a clean shutdown before try using ssh
sudo halt -n
NB: __ALWAYS__ shutdown clean, dont pull the power cord or kill the outlet
now wait, this is practice on how to shutdown the PI and not harm it or the SD card.
the screen will blank. wait longer for no green led flashes. wait for another green led hiccup then wait some more, at least 30 seconds after last green led flash. the red led will stay on, that just means the power supply is on and plugged in. NOW turn off the power supply and wait another 30 seconds after the red led is off.
plug in an ethernet cable from your router to the pi
power the PI back on ( it still has monitor keyboard and mouse ) and wait when you get login on the terminal screen, just let it sit there
on another computer (the HOST) , with a connection to your lan, ssh into the Pi
find out the IP address of the HOST (not Pi) computer ( I use 'sudo ifconfig') find out the IP addess of the PI ( I use 'ping' )
now ssh into the pI from the external system
sudo ssh email@example.com
if you get @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY! ...
just delete the /root/.ssh/known_hosts file
then you get / or you get
sudo ssh firstname.lastname@example.org
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.2 (192.168.1.2)' can't be established. ... Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?say yes
... Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.2' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. email@example.com's password:
enter PI's password here
... pi@raspberrypi:~ $
ok you're now ssh'd into the pi
lets check what the PI is running, later, after we add the RT PREEMPT kernel, you'll see it change so its good to see a before & after report
later, you'll also see these words 'PREEMPT RT'
there are images that you can use BUT unless you BUILD it you dont have the tools or the sources for other , later purposes so get dirty, build it
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install git bc mc libncurses5-dev
git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux -b rpi-4.14.y-rt >br> '''
here i'm getting a specific branch,its the ONLY realtime branch available on Raspbian (so far)
navigate to Kernel features | Preemption Model | mark FULLY PREEMPTABLE KERNEL RT by <SELECT> <exit> <exit> this makes sure Fully Preemptble Kernel(RT) is chosen (mine was ALREADY set, but its good to check )
make -j4 zImage modules dtbs
this takes under 2 hrs (it all being done ON the Pi)
sudo make modules_install
I wasted DAYS here because it failed with my typo 'sudo make modules install' I had no underscore!sudo cp arch/arm/boot/dts/*.dtb /boot/ sudo cp arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/*.dtb* /boot/overlays/ sudo cp arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/README /boot/overlays/
sudo cp arch/arm/boot/zImage /boot/$KERNEL.img sudo reboot -n
ssh in then check that youhave an RT kernel running with $ uname -a Linux raspberrypI 4.14.66-rt40-v7+ #1 SMP PREEMPT RT Sat Sep 1 16:17:01 +07 2018 armv7l GNU/Linux?
YAY It says PREEMPT RT (your version numbers may vary )
Now Build LinuxCNC
cd git clone git://github.com/linuxcnc/linuxcnc.git linuxcnc-dev DONE sudo apt-get install dpkg-dev DONE ( already had it )
now find the dependancies ( most of them, )
cd linuxcnc-dev/debian ./configure uspace cd ..
dpkg-checkbuilddeps this cmd will report MOST ofthe missing dependancies for linuxcnc, we'll get remaining few later from the list it returns, build a cmd line to apt-get them
it reports: pi@raspberrypi:~/linuxcnc-dev $ dpkg-checkbuilddeps dpkg-checkbuilddeps: Unmet build dependencies: debhelper (>= 6) tcl8.6-dev tk8.6-dev libreadline-gplv2-dev asciidoc (>= 8.5) dblatex (>= 0.2.12) docbook-xsl dvipng ghostscript graphviz groff imagemagick inkscape python-lxml source-highlight texlive-extra-utils texlive-font-utils texlive-fonts-recommended texlive-lang-cyrillic texlive-lang-french texlive-lang-german texlive-lang-polish texlive-lang-spanish texlive-latex-recommended w3c-linkchecker xsltproc python-dev libxmu-dev libglu1-mesa-dev libgl1-mesa-dev | libgl1-mesa-swx11-dev libgtk2.0-dev gettext intltool libboost-python-dev yapps2
then get these deps ( from the report, remove the versions, and pick one mesa ) I copied the output of dpkg-checkbuilddeps and turned it into an apt-get command _like_ this:
sudo apt-get install debhelper tcl8.6-dev tk8.6-dev libreadline-gplv2-dev asciidoc dblatex docbook-xsl dvipng ghostscript graphviz groff imagemagick inkscape python-lxml source-highlight texlive-extra-utils texlive-font-utils texlive-fonts-recommended texlive-lang-cyrillic texlive-lang-french texlive-lang-german texlive-lang-polish texlive-lang-spanish texlive-latex-recommended w3c-linkchecker xsltproc python-dev libxmu-dev libglu1-mesa-dev libgl1-mesa-dev libgtk2.0-dev gettext intltool libboost-python-dev yapps2
some sites may fail, its a LONG list and the interweb can be flaky If your attempt failes, just keep trying till it succeeds, same command, doggedly. I had to run it up to 3 times to succeed
these files will take a long time to get ( depends on interweb ) and a VERY long time to install ( maybe 1 1/2 hours )
if its quick, then its wrong !
after a VERY long time you will get an annoying error """ Errors were encountered while processing: w3c-markup-validator E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1) """
I dont know how to avoid it, I do know how to fix it. There's a file that needs editing and you dont have it until midway thru the install!
so, edit it now and run the apt-get command AGAIN...
Here's how to edit it
edit /var/lib/dpkg/info/w3c-markup-validator.postinst change the stanza that MOSTLY looks like this to EXACTLY THIS"""
if [ ! -s /etc/$server/conf.d/w3c-markup-validator.conf ]; then ln -s /etc/w3c/httpd.conf /etc/$server/conf-enabled/w3c-markup-validator.conf fi""" ( you're changing the 3rd line of this stanza FROM "conf.d" TO "conf-enabled" )
run the apt-get command AGAIN...
now you will get ANOTHER message that requires some attention, its simple though... """ Enabling module include. To activate the new configuration, you need to run:
service apache2 restartEnabling module rewrite. To activate the new configuration, you need to run:
service apache2 restart""" well, you need to run
sudo service apache2 restart
next, you need a few more missed deps ( yes STILL missing some )
sudo apt-get install bwidget libtk-img tclx autoconf
NOW you finally have all the deps (afaict) so build it,,,
cd cd linuxcnc-dev/src
make this took just over 1/2 hour sudo make setuid
ok its built, now test it
we built this as a RIP ( run-in-place ), so get used to this litany of commands. Say the magic everytime you use LinuxCNC or Hal etc ---
cd cd linuxcnc-dev/ . scripts/rip-environment HEY there's a DOT there , by itself, at the beginning of this command ( its geekish shorthand for 'source' ) --- end of memorized litany
--- now test what you built
during the tests you will see what appears to be a fail its not a fail its a test that makes sure something fails and you get a message saying that fail happened ( oh the terrors of negative logic )
by golly I think we have it ollie
Improve the latency and Test the latency
do a clean shutdown then bring it all back up and from the HOST
sudo ssh -X firstname.lastname@example.org this will enable X forwarding and we can see the program window from the PI on the HOST screen. you will still see just a test terminal output UNTIL we open an xwindows app on the PI.
now to improve latency before testing latency: add to cmdline.txt it was this:
dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=serial0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=0358fc90-02 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline fsck.repair=yes rootwait
I added to end of the line :
quiet splash lapic noxsave acpi_osi= isolcpus=2,3 idle=poll acpi_irq_nobalance noirqbalance vmalloc=32MB clocksource=acpi_pm
( this 'improve latency' is from notes at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/machinekit/t2eCs09EvrU/r4Ta5GtGDgAJ a discussion of rpI rtpreempt and machinekit)
for testing the realtimey-ness of your new system, you need more
sudo apt-get install mesa-utils
this is for glxgears , used in latency testing to load the cpurun
latency-histogram --base 100000 --servo 1000000
Once it is running, you can open 4 glxgears ( theres a button )
Let this run overnight or a day or so, I did :-) I expect you will see the largest reported latency to be near 70 uSec
take out the garbage, put out the cat ( yakety yak, dont talk back)!
sudo apt-get clean
This gets rid of .deb files in your apt cache, they are un-needed now
you can clean the 'linux' dir also, it was used to build the RT PREEMP kernel, the goodies have been put away already
DONT clear the linuxcnc-dev dir.. you need that to run linuxcnc ( and remember the litany! )
add the hal_gpio from Michael Halberer, modified by KL Chin
NEED A PLACE FOT SOURCE AND MODULE, NEED TO BUILD AS NEWER OTHER FILES WILL MAKE PRECOMPILED USELESS SOON
get these 3 files: bcm2835.h from MK or bcm2835.tgz cpuinfo.h from MK hal_gpio.c from KL Chin or me
copy the 3 files to linuxcnc-dev/src/hal/drivers set owner pi:pi set permissions rwxr-wr-w
getthe new Makefile from ... copy new Makefile to linuxcnc-dev/src/
this Makefile has rules to compile and link hal_gpio.c
Create your .ini and .hal files
[EMC_MOT] ... BASE_PERIOD = 100000 SERVO_PERIOD = 1000000
Your .inI file BASE_PERIOD value should be slightly larger than...
the largest number seen PLUS your .hal file step timing values for stepgen.<chan>.steplen + stepgen.<chan>.stepspace
Be a little generous here, a few additional microseconds is good ( unscientific fudge factor, but good practice )
You will NOT be able to use any step wizardy tools here, you will need to hand edit a file from the wiz or some supplied example. Because the wizards wont work with latencies as large as yours ( if you can get less than 50uS, go for it )
My BASE_PERIOD is 100000 and my RPI runs for weeks now with no Unexpected Reatime Delays. My resultant step rate is 5000
You can ease up the load that AXIS places on the system by increasing the CYCLE_TIME [TASK] ... CYCLE_TIME = 0.010
After this step, and the RPi's strength, Axis is a bit choppy, but there are no 'latency excursions' ( non-rt, TASK related delays ).
Axis is very useable, I can rotate 3D, zoom and pan without pain, it aint fast but it dont crash neither.
All done, you have a realtime cnc control, you are now officially dangerous
here is some more info https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/machinekit/t2eCs09EvrU/r4Ta5GtGDgAJ
Hardware Step Generator: see: https://github.com/kinsamanka/PICnc-V2/wiki Kinsa Manka's PICnc is a hardware step generator that is suited to the RPi Its hardware and a software module, allowing up to 40kHz pukse rates
Double Step for hal_gpio: see: https://emergent.unpythonic.net/01188134101 There's a trick that Jepler created back in the day, so that a single servo cycle could produce a high AND a low ( the stepgen module has a kind of soft one-shot timer ) Without this, your step rate is halfed! so it is a _very_ good thing to have